DA facts of the situation

Ted Lasso synchronous content – contextual report

My digital artefact is a collection of synchronous content to go along with Ted Lasso season 2 as it was released on apple tv +. 

My DA addresses the main problem of a lack of content for Ted Lasso fans as episodes are released weekly.

I developed this project to help me in a few ways, firstly to develop my editing skills on my laptop. Now I no longer have access to the setup I used to use for video recording and editing. Second, to help me understand youtube posting and optimization better. Third and last to help me remember what I need to do before watching the next episode of Ted Lasso each week as I am more accustomed to binge watching shows these days.

Based on talking to friends who watch Ted Lasso, especially those like me who had binge watched the first season discovering it after it was fully released sometimes were not sure of all the story points as they watched the new episode. I decided to make content that summarised the previous episodes and main story points to remember before watching the next episode.

I decided I would develop this project by taking notes when I watch each Ted Lasso episode. Next I take the key story points from the episode and unresolved ones from the previous episodes and write them all down. Then I turned this into a rough dot point script and recorded audio with audacity. Next I got relevant screenshots from the episode to use as the visuals for my video matching the topic of conversation.

This is then all put into and edited together in imovie. Next I upload to youtube and make a thumbnail in preview (while I have a photoshop like program for a thumbnail preview is sufficient and faster). Then I chose a title, release time, make a description and put in time stamps for the video.

learning from this experience

The main class learnings I focused on including in my DA this session was the minimal viable product discussion combined with iterative design/prototyping and allowing these to be produced when I can and just sent out to see what feedback returns. This combined with the idea that no-one knows what a good idea is especially if its never been done before like the snow mobile example used throughout the lectures. This lead me to try and be more willing to upload my DA without trying to be a perfectionist then leaving everything to the very last minute.

Learning moments:

(also learning how to do a proper photo gallery in WordPress only took me 5 years 😅)

The evolution of the thumbnails here shows the main learning experience I wasn’t expecting for me during this DA was how YouTube/people on YouTube interact with content. Looking at release time, thumbnail, title and video chapters.

So when I first uploaded I just used one of YouTube’s automatic thumbnail suggestions and got a few more click initially then just my family/friends who watch Ted Lasso but nothing huge then the next week I thought I had a more professional thumbnail and overall YouTube package and got less interaction then for my next video I tried the same again thinking it was just a one off and the same. Then remembering to actually think about maybe why the first thumbnail worked, it looks more engaging than my next iteration. So I combined the two and got similar to maybe slightly better interaction than the first thumbnail although now it was had to tell because YouTube decided to recommend my first video to a lot of people so now it has over 35 times more views then my other videos (850+). But my latest thumbnail is my second most watched both numbers and interacted with video behind the first.

also worth noting was the increasing viewer retention in my content so I hopefully that shows improved content.

overall learning to use all of YouTube analytics to a base level is showcased here and meets social utility for me.

next using audacity rather than apples inbuilt recording software allowed me to react to feedback from friends that the audio wasn’t the best in my videos. and also another bonus actually meant I could not get blasted with static though my headphones when I start to record and even listen to music to help calm me if needed.

what I learnt here was people were actually listening and using my recaps when I received useful verbal feedback based on detail from people who have no investment in this subject/ uni which was good to see.

While specific feedback to This change afterwards is hard to see ist shows the social utility for my friend and Ted Lasso fans coming through well I believe with the increased average viewing time and increase in viewers on my videos that were from people unknown to me also shows this.

Another learning experience I will take from this subject is it helped me improve the editing skills I have for both audio and video. I have gotten faster as the weeks progress and even been able to chose to do video presentations for other subjects over the written alternatives with increased confidence and efficiency in these skills.

Overall reflection on this DA

To be honest coming into BCM114 I wasn’t really sure I would be learning anything from it and while most of the lecture content just served as reminders for previous learning I believe I learnt a lot more that I expected.

  • First off the way I produced content was challenged to remember getting content out in a timely matter has strong value (also relevant to the memes – OP assignments)
  • Secondly I think I relearned the value and meaning of if its new no-one knows if its good and it doesn’t hurt to try with a FIST attempt
  • Third more content is not always great good timed simple content can be more effective
  • Forth if you have ,missed the boat time wise often its better to skip then try play catch up and again not be timely
  • lastly there is still a lot to learn with all the details YouTube gives you to analyse and new data appearing after certain viewer count thresholds

anyways that it for my DA write up this session but I think ill keep making some Ted Lasso content when I have time.

Finally it’s worth noting I have planned my next episode but not yet had time to record it. This will be a confirmed details for season 3 video.


Prototyping a better project, aiming for a better me. success?

Hello again here we are to reflect on what I’ve been up to since we last checked in in a more reflective way.

If you’ve just joined me I have been working on a series of videos creating synchronous content for Ted Lasso viewers.

In BCM114 this session we have looked at Ideating which is discussed here in my previous reflective blog post. Since we moved on to Prototyping which is the main focus on this timeframe we are looking at and we move into the process of using both of these in making before the end of the subject and into the future.

The biggest learnings from this part of the project is the act of breaking and remaking.

These two concepts go quite well hand in hand and holistically the two are the process of looking at our ideas / creations challenging our assumptions and why we are doing things then trying again with adjusted assumptions and changed models. The key facts to remember in this stage is that just because a model worked in the past does not guarantee future success and in a similar vein to remember the world is changing by how we and other interact with it so by merely creating a model the world changes.

While I had quite a few different learning moments and changes to my DA the best example of these concepts was with the thumbnail for my videos.

talk about the thumbnail and challenged the idea I had that it needed to look professional.

The first thumbnail was born of me being tired at 1 am overseas at a training camp and needed to get something done and is literally just a farm YouTube grabbed from the video.

while this thumbnail on the next few videos I thought was better and more professional and closer to what I want to replicate in a completed product.

However it turn out that this type of thumbnail was less likely to be clicked on by those viewing it. this made me remember that I should be challenging my preconceived ideas. As while This type of thumbnail had worked best fro previous DA projects it shows the world is not one size fits all or simple and keeps changing and I think thats indicated well with what I ended up with make thumbnails like hereafter.

this thumbnail is a combination of the previous ones combining the most effective elements of previous iterations and will currently be the same moving forward. But if I have learned anything from this experience is even in my 5th year at university I need to remember the basics and that I have the perfect model for everything and sometimes the unexpected is what solves your problems.

This is also greatly indicated by the fact suddenly my initial DA video in this series suddenly started to get recommended by YouTube and currently sits at just over 850 views compared to between 5-30 on my other videos for this DA project.

Thanks for reading along feel free to check out my series of videos or drop a comment and let me know what you think.

Beta now then n/ever?

YouTube channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLM4SlpRdg0iQBtCTGwKt6g/

DA playlist:

So here we are checking back in with the beta progress of my DA.

I have gotten into to a decent rhythm and despite a couple setback due to limitations from a mostly filler episode and an episode taking place at a funeral which I couldn’t make notes on for various reasons I think my DA is improving with every post.

So lets look at the more in depth reasons for my iterations.

thumbnail changes:

My first thumbnail was borne from necessity as I finished the video late and published rapidly, so going into my second and 3rd posts I tried to provide a more professional video but notice a huge drop off in impressions compared to expected.

-this is not including the huge surge in impressions my first video got by somehow ending up on peoples home page ect labeled as “browse features” by YouTube-

so in my last post I went back to a picture much close to the first and have received 4x the impressions of the last two video although this could also be link to the scheduling changes I implemented.

Scheduling changes:

As discussed in my video the large US viewership of my videos was apparent so this change was added and as just discussed I believed help contribute to the video receiving more external from my core group views.

This change while doesn’t really advance towards my main goal helps me understand YouTube posting strategies and proficiency.

Video Chapters:

Adding video chapters was a direct response to a conversation with one of my friends who watches my video before the new episodes of Ted Lasso. however, it has also helped provide more key words to be potential traffic sources for my video outside my core group.

Achieving my goals?

Utility for friends:

  • I believe that I have succeeded in creating good content fulfilling the needs me and my friends first talked about with us having watched Ted Lasso in a binge setting but now needing reminders with the weekly release schedule of Ted Lasso seaon 2.

Utility for the Ted lasso Fan:

  • I also believe this is become more and more successful with each post as I provide more refined content and can see what parts of my video people watch and there is now more content for Ted Lasso fans that isn’t just clips from episodes available for them to watch

Utility for me:

  • Learning to edit on my laptop has been slowly improving and I also am definitely getting faster so in that regard it’s a success
  • learning YouTube posting skills has also been successful as I have been slowly targeting and improving different metrics although i’m yet to understand why one of my videos randomly got prompted to the algorithm shown to almost 8k people and watched 800 times

Reflecting on reflections

An update to where my BCM114 Digital Artefact (DA – an online public facing project for the subject) is at and how the subject is shaping its progression.

At the start of the session heading back to some first year subjects was a bit of a shock to the system and remembering how to do/chose a DA was a bit of a shock to the system after it had been awhile. However I quickly settled on wanting to do something based on an activity I was already doing I worked out I would be quite busy throughout the session.

This led me to Ted lasso a show I am watching that weekly ‘airs’ episodes if you can call it that on Apple TV Plus.

This show follows Ted who is now coaching a football club (FC Richmond in England) coming from a background of only American football.

as I dragged my heels as to what this would/could actually look like and tripping up on the utility of the DA again this made me think it wouldn’t work.

However Sir Unicorn (Richard my tutor for bcm114) graciously encouraged my idea despite my somewhat hesitant attitude and made a plan for how this DA can help me and others.

since I have refined this even more as I realise this DA is to help me. So now my goal is for my DA to help my friends before they watch each episode and be fine if they are the only ones who watch it and secondly to help me improve my editing skills on my laptop now I can’t edit on my gaming pc now I am not in the same country as it.

if you look closely at this you might notice the time and the fact that it is dark everywhere except my laptop screen. This is a result of me being even more time strapped than I thought I would be. This and looking at travis’ tweet reminding us to work in our own means.

so now I am focusing on only doing episode before you watches and doing them as well as I can.

So effectively where I am at now:

  • My DA is on Ted Lasso and help me and my friends and that’s okay
  • I am not focusing on ‘big growth’ or being viral
  • I hope to up skill myself
  • portable work is even more necessary then I thought it would be eg: with not know I was going to Sicily till like 2 days before which was after just being somewhere else
  • focus on a single element and everything else is bonus

feel free to watch my DA, here is a playlist of my before you watch episodes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_XaL4MWl4Y&list=PLXjw8DOqf0pFy7EToFttSlS-N6MSJIyGI

Pitching the synchronised Lasso


My DA will be useful for those that like watching Ted Lasso and those that don’t yet know they will like Ted Lasso and my content can provide a gateway into Ted Lasso for new fans of Ted Lasso.

Problems Solved:

  • Providing extra content for those craving more Ted Lasso content then 1 episode a week
  • Gateway to the next episode reminding viewers of previous episode story points
  • Creates ongoing engagement for me with Ted Lasso
    • especially providing a solution to me and some of my friends memory issue when watching the new episodes of Ted Lasso
  • Improves my editing skills on my laptop (previously used a desktop pc which I do not currently have physical access to)


Pagey is a YouTube channel that makes this type of content for DC tv shows as discussed in the pitch video above. While he also makes content based on set photos as these shows are filmed while episodes are airing his other episodic synchronous content such as trailer breakdowns and episode reviews.

Starting with content similar to his episode reviews leaving the option for more FIST content with Ted Lasso trailers if they are also well received.

I also sent out a twitter poll to #bcm114 and YouTube was the strong winner for this content but I am still leaving options open after seeing how the content does on YouTube.

The Social Self

What is sense of self in the world of self promotion and marketing

Social media has become the way people represent themselves to each other, but these selfs that are being displayed how real are they. Sometimes social media can be represented as a ‘Third space’. Pennington (2018) defines Third spaces as “sites where hegemonic and normative ways of seeing the world are challenged and, perhaps, transcended. For Hoover and Echchaibi (nd: 3), third space is something that is ‘fluid, conceptual, and imagined,’ as much a tool to ‘think with’ as a site of investigation” Basically this means social media is a place where reality and imagination combine to present this combination image of self to others.

As Instagram is really the only platform I post content (if still very irregularly) too I will be focusing in on instagram, the sense of self I portray and the way the platform in general presents people and their sense of self.

So how do I use instagram ?

My instagram is a public facing account (my only public social media account apart from twitter for university). I use my instagram page to mostly display my current Judo adventures, although there are a couple other posts mixed in there. As a consumer on instagram I mostly just skim through a few friends stories and posts and am not engaged in really any other content except for the IJF (international Judo federation) posts sometimes around competitions I am watching.

My posting is actually quite in line with smith et al. (2015) findings which is quite interesting and suggests I might be framing my own self projection based on my experience of looking at athletes projected self online.

I generally take the approach to anything I post on instagram needs to be appropriate for all audiences from friends to potential employers as it is public facing. So this means I am representing a semi professional self and things I do that I find interesting/cool enough to share. I would say my profile is quite authentic but also very selective in the sense that I say it how I see it when I post but I don’t post much.

It also worth noting as Slater et al. (2017) discusses the limited affect of the kind of inspirational images in instagram not really actually being all that useful for the user but self compassion (“healthy ways of relating to oneself in times of suffering, whether suffering is caused by failure, perceived inadequacy, or general life difficulties” Braehler et al. (2020)) this kind of behaviour can be seen through some of my posts after injuries/disappointing competition results. Which again I was not conscious of that being part of my activity or necessarily why I thought these things were post worthy but I makes more sense now.

The affordances of instagram that allow me to do this is the nature of the following aspect combined with the public profile ability where I can provide a public facing image and not see everyone that has seen my contents own content to but they can see mine if they want. Instagram specifically works well for this as they can see when I post new things without having to come looking for it and they can get a quick picture view of what I do by heading to my page.

Another big thing is the way stories can be close friends only implemented into instagram now. Now that I am living across the world I intend to use these affordances to show some more of my adventures that my friends would normally know about through discussions in person. This also allows the semi professional self being maintained and the quality of posts unaffected but establishing both selfs on one platform.

The way instagram organises news feeds also provides an easy way to have a global reach as it focuses on who it thinks you will interact with over when things were posted, this means people I know in Australia, Malta and elsewhere will still see my posts with less importance on when I post than other platforms.


Pennington, R. (2018) ‘Social media as third spaces? Exploring Muslim identity and connection in Tumblr’, International Communication Gazette. 80: 7, pp 620-636

Slater, A, Varsani, N & Diedrichs, PC 2017, ‘fitspo or #loveyourself? The impact of fitspiration and self-compassion Instagram images on women’s body image, self-compassion, and mood’, Body image, vol. 22, pp. 87–96.

Smith, LR & Sanderson, J 2015, ‘I’m Going to Instagram It! An Analysis of Athlete Self-Presentation on Instagram’, Journal of broadcasting & electronic media, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 342–358.

Christine Braehler, Kristin Neff, 2020, “Chapter 20 – Self-compassion in PTSD”, Etiology, Assessment, Neurobiology, and Treatment 2020, Pages 567-596

Citizen Journalism,

Factual news or uneducated ramblings?

With the ubiquitous nature of smartphones and increasing access to the internet and ability to make media and create ‘news’ by individuals the question arises who/what should be trusted. Should important information only be delivered by legacy media sources (newspaper, TV, radio), should it be government provided or is a post by someone online just as valid?

With social media being a democratised approach to media publishing, that is anyone can post anything and it can be accessed widely. This leads to massive amounts of media with varying opinions publicly accessible. Unfortunately one downside to this quantity of media is publishers can be focused on getting clicks on their articles rather than creating quality content. Does this lead to ‘fake news’/content that is not properly fact checked being released to be first to post and receive clicks?

For example in 2017 TMZ saw footage of what appears to be a dog being mistreated on a movie set leading them to publish articles about it which is still live today even though it has been shown to be a large quantity of clips from different times combined to misrepresent the situation. Here is a brief article about the situation.

A quick definition of citizen journalism before we continue defined by Wall (2015) “citizen journalism is defined as news content (text, video, audio, interactives, etc.) produced by non-professionals”

So what do I think generally about citizen journalism then? Generally I think citizen journalism has had a positive influence on news and media cycles and can often been seen to hold those in power accountable especially in locations of harsh/dictator like rule. However as we approach news in general not just from citizen journalists I think it is harmful to only get your information from one source and to not question anything you are hearing. So as a piece of a wholistic news puzzle I think it is helpful but I do not think it is the be all end all of news/media.

As Al-Ghazzi (2014) talks about I think it is important to understand the context of a situation and using your own understand of the world tp provide commentary is not always helpful and does not necessarily apply across cultural contexts. Also as meikle et al. talks about the wholly encompassing nature of social media to include satire, peoples everyday activities, event organisation, businesses, jokes, news articles and more. This means its important to understand the truly anyone nature of citizen journalism and its even harder to work out an individuals motives for posting/ creating citizen journalism than organisation where they generally have some clear leanings even as they try to avoid biases in journalistic reporting.

All these things considered let’s take a quick look at how citizen journalism has played out in Malaysia. Mahamed et al. (2021) talks about eh development of a specific website for tis content in 2007 to an organisation in 2011 to support and provide opportunity for proved reputable citizen journalists to now the new generation and their use of these pathways to express opinions and feel more engaged in impacting their future.

Citizen journalism in Malaysia has been shown to bring more diverse issues to the attention of media who often didn’t look to far outside their normal realms of discuss previously and has been a good additive to traditional media discourse as talked about here.

I think Malaysia is a good example of great citizen journalism using the tools available to citizens well to add to the wholistic picture of news in Malaysia.


Graham Meikle and Sherman Young – From Broadcast to Social Media (ch. 3 in Media Convergence: Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 59-78)

Wall, M 2015, ‘Citizen Journalism: A retrospective on what we know, an agenda for what we don’t’, Digital journalism, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 797–813.

Al-Ghazzi, O 2014, ‘“Citizen Journalism” in the Syrian Uprising: Problematizing Western Narratives in a Local Context’, Communication theory, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 435–454. COPY CITATION TO CLIPBOARD

MAHAMED, M., OMAR, S. and KRAUSS, S. (2021) “Understanding Citizen Journalism from the Perspective of Young Journalists in Malaysia”, Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana, 26(Esp.1), pp. 133-144. Available at: https://www.redalyc.org/journal/279/27966119015/html/

Consuming popular culture

This week in BCM111 we looked at media, popular culture, the interactions between the two and how globalisation in combination with the internet has impacted them. So this week I am writing about piece of popular culture I personally consume and how the theories learned in BCM111 apply to it.

First let’s have a quick look at what is popular culture? Storey (2015) talks about 6 definitions for popular culture but the commonalities between them are mass appeal, mass produced and for the people. While some of the definitions have other specific points this is the main concept we will be looking at here.

So thinking about my consumption of media specifically to narrow down the options the most popular culture I consume at the moment is Ted Lasso. Ted Lasso is a tv show currently airing its second season weekly on Apple TV +, it is about an American NFL coach who is now coaching a European football (soccer) team.

I believe that the main key theoretical reason for Ted Lasso’s popularity throughout all westernised countries is Cultural Proximity. Cultural proximity is defined by Lu et al. (2019) as “similarities in history, ethnicity, religion, language, and geography. Among them, similar language was often highlighted as an important determinant of audience preferences … Besides language, there are other cultural elements at play, such as dress, ethnic types, gestures, body language, humor, music, religion, gender image, lifestyle, personal experiences, education, family, and organizational affiliation”.

So why is this relevant to the popularity of Ted lasso? being a show centred on a sport that is globally played and recognised is a great starting point for large cultural proximity.

This is a large factor bridging between European league being the setting for the Show while brining an American coach into this environment you are immediately bridging the gap between two of the largest cultural driving regions in the world and making them both has strong cultural proximity to the show. Trepte (2008) talks about the significant cultural differences between the US Asia and Europe using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to show these differences and how cultural proximity across these barriers can be challenging. However Trepte (2008) also uses these dimensions to show how some things do match across these cultures and I believe Ted Lasso’s use of football (soccer) with an American NFL coach achieves cultural proximity across the US and Europe.

The fact that Ted Lasso is also in English helps with the reduction of cultural polarisation as Kziazek and Webster (2008) talk about multilingual non native English speakers are far more likely to be culturally fluent with English media then the other way around as native English speakers often shows cultural polarisation.

So in summary Ted Lasso is current popular culture with strong cultural proximity and relatability to the masses across a large global audience.


John Storey – What is Popular Culture? (Cultural Theory and popular culture: an introduction, Routledge, pp. 1-16)

Lu J, Liu X, Cheng Y. Cultural Proximity and Genre Proximity: How Do Chinese Viewers Enjoy American and Korean TV Dramas? SAGE Open. January 2019. doi:10.1177/2158244018825027

Thomas B. Ksiazek M.A. and Ph.D. & James G. Webster Ph.D (2008) Cultural Proximity and Audience Behavior: The Role of Language in Patterns of Polarization and Multicultural Fluency, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52:3, 485-503, DOI: 10.1080/08838150802205876

Trepte, S. (2008) Cultural proximity in TV entertainment: An eight-country study on the relationship of nationality and the evaluation of U.S. prime-time fiction: . , Vol. 33 (Issue 1), pp. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1515/COMMUN.2008.001

Timing Tweeting Together

(critical self reflection of Tweets Number 2)

Live tweeting the second stage of screenings in BCM325 was a very different experience from the first half of BCM325 as now time zone are closer and I was actually live tweeting at the same time as the rest of my tutorial group. (bar one week in Croatia for a competition)

After my first tweeting evaluation I wanted to focus on discussion and interaction with others, seeking to add lecture and other relevant information to others onto of my previous tweeting habits. first ill look at the same type of tweets I continued and see how the engagement varied now being live then I will evaluate my progress in interactions.

Standalone tweets:

Tweets including a quote with a small amount of analysis from me and matching when people will have just heard it in the movie now are getting some good reception,

and sometimes my mini tech information facts actually started discussion rather than sitting untouched:

I improved my timing of tweets especially in screenings like ready player one where I here had this tweet primed to send as soon as the movie told us of their plans to turn off the oasis 2 times a week.

while these tweets helped me feel good a bit they didn’t add much lots to the future cultures discussion and the reality of the technology we were seeing, leading me back to mini tech facts which I think are one of the main ways I can add value to future culture discussions and ground what is being seen on the screen with some real technology progress/research.

although relatable tweets were still sprinkled in and did garner me some likes which I think just helped provide motivation for the mini facts I can provide that didn’t always get interacted with but I am hopeful people read.

I believe a refined my art of these tweets and sometimes accidentally achieved interactive tweeting now I was tweeting with the cohort. The far greater possibility I think helped a lot with me refining my tweets to be bite sized both relatable and information based tweets.

Interactive tweeting:

Now onto what I tried to focus on, starting and contributing to discussions to hopefully add value to everyones experience of live tweeting in BCM325.

While it may not have started the greatest for me initiating conversations, interacting with others and seeing what gets talked about live allowed me to refine this in future weeks.

This tweet doesn’t start with a question and just dumps my thoughts down not a great starting point but we got to start somewhere.

simple questions allowing for interactions allowed for discussion like this one that I think provided a good evaluation and prediction space for cars from cyber punk 2049.

Ai was often also a good conversation starter as it seems to always be on the news’ mind so being able to discuss the potentials in AI futures.

Other tweets in this vein was when I tried to add value to other people observations:

And further integrating my knowledge/experience of technology to add to discusions

Capitalising on my brothers habit of purchasing every VR headset in existence to talk about the differences between current VR and ready player one helps a few times here’s a key discussion:

Bringing back too forecasting based on the general ideas of the screening and looking at feeling influencing that here with Robot and Frank. Having learned how to engage with peoples ‘relatable’ tweets to create productive thoughts for future discussion.

Overall thoughts:

While it was great to be able to tweet at the same time as the rest of the cohort it was interesting seeing the divergent nature of interactions from Chris and Angus (lecturer and Tutor) compared to the general cohorts interactions.

This interactions normally came with mini facts or discussions mostly ignored by the rest of the cohort but using them as a content goal and the tweets I received most interactions with as a delivery method and I think by the end of this experience I have improved in this. Especially in the way to provide information in a relatable way to combine the relatable aspect people seem to like interacting with.

This reminded me a lot of my marketing experience practically and with university theory where the best marketing looks natural but is the least natural thing you will find. I think I have improved that skill over this session and will take that into the future. (see punny because BCM325 Future Cultures … okay i’m done now)

subject Blog: https://futurecultures.blog/2021/05/28/timing-tweeting-together/